The LaTeX package for Linux is the texlive package. The normal install of texlive is huge due to the documentation included can go upto 500MB itself. A leaner latex is what we all desire. It is not possible from inside Synaptic.
Use this command to install latex without docs.
sudo apt-get install --no-install-recommends texlive texlive-pstricks texlive-fonts-extra prosper